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Article Dans Une Revue Food Research International Année : 2016

Efficiency of population-dependent sulfite against Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine


Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered as a spoilage yeast encountered mainly in red wine. It is able to reduce vinylphenols from phenolic acids to ethylphenols. These volatiles are responsible for the phenolic "Brett character" described as animal, farm, horse sweat and animal leather odors. Other molecules are responsible for organoleptic deviations described as "mousiness taint". SO2 is the product most often used by winemakers to prevent B. bruxellensis growth. Usually, the recommended molecular dose of SO2 (active SO2, mSO(2)) is highly variable, from 03 to 0.8 mg/L. But these doses do not take into account differences of strain resistance to sulfites or population levels. Moreover, SO2 is known as a chemical stressor inducing a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of B. bruxellensis. These cells, which are non-detectable by plate counting, can lead to new contamination when the amount of sulfite decreases over time. Consequently, we first assessed the effect of SO2 levels in red wine on two strains with phenotypically different sulfite resistances. Then, we studied the relationship between amounts of SO2 (0, 0.5, 0.9 and 1.1 mg/L active SO2) and population levels (10(3), 10(4) and 10(5) cells/mL) in red wine. Yeasts were enumerated by both plate counting and flow cytometry over time using viability dye. Our results showed different SO2 resistances according to the strain used. A relationship between yeast population level and SO2 resistance was demonstrated: the higher the yeast concentration, the lower the efficiency of SO2. Under certain conditions, the VBNC state of B. bruxellensis was highlighted in red wine. Yeasts in this VBNC state did not produce 4-EP. Moreover, cells became culturable again over time. All these results provide new information enabling better management of sulfite addition during wine aging.
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Dates et versions

hal-01493206 , version 1 (21-03-2017)



Cédric Longin, Claudine Degueurce, Frédérique Julliat, Michèle Guilloux-Benatier, Sandrine Rousseaux, et al.. Efficiency of population-dependent sulfite against Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine. Food Research International, 2016, 89, pp.620 - 630. ⟨10.1016/j.foodres.2016.09.019⟩. ⟨hal-01493206⟩


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