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Article Dans Une Revue International Journal of Biomedical Sciences Année : 2008

Forgotten Radicals in Biology


redox reactions play key roles in intra-and inter-cellular signaling, and in adaptative processes of tissues towards stress. Among the major free radicals with essential functions in cells are reactive oxygen species (rOs) including superoxide anion (O 2 •-), hydroxyl radical (• OH) and reactive nitrogen species (rNs) such as nitric oxide (• NO). In this article, we review the forgotten and new radicals with potential relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Approximately 0.3% of O 2 •present in cytosol exists in its protonated form: hydroperoxyl radical (HO 2 •). Water (H 2 O) can be split into two free radicals: • OH and hydrogen radical (H •). several free radicals, including thiyl radicals (rs •) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 •) are known to isomerize double bonds. In the omega-6 series of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), cis-trans isomerization of γ-linolenate and arachidonate catalyzed by rs • has been investigated. Evidence is emerging that hydrogen disulphide (H 2 s) is a signaling molecule in vivo which can be a source of free radicals. the cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (sOD) enzyme can oxidize the ionized form of H 2 s to hydro-sulphide radical: Hs •. recent studies suggest that H 2 s plays an important function in cardiovascular functions. carbonate radical, which can be formed when • OH reacts with carbonate or bicarbonate ions, is also involved in the activity of cu-Zn-sOD. recently, it has been reported that carbonate anion were potentially relevant oxidants of nucleic acids in physiological environments. In conclusion, there is solid evidence supporting the formation of many free radicals by cells leading which may play an important role in their homeostasis.
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hal-03437209 , version 1 (19-11-2021)





Rochette Luc, Catherine Vergely. Forgotten Radicals in Biology. International Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 2008, 4 (4), pp.255-259. ⟨hal-03437209⟩
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